List of Egyptian hieroglyphs

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The following is a list of Egyptian hieroglyphs.

The total number of distinct hieroglyphs increased over time from several hundred in the Middle Kingdom to several thousand during the Ptolemaic Kingdom.

The most widely used list of hieroglyphs is Gardiner's sign list (1928/9), which includes 763 signs in 26 categories. Georg Möller compiled more extensive lists, organised by historical epoch (published posthumously in 1927 and 1936). The Unicode Egyptian Hieroglyphs block (Unicode version 5.2, 2009) includes 1071 signs, with organisation based on Gardiner's list. As of 2016, there is a proposal by Michael Everson to extend the Unicode standard to comprise Möller's list.[1]

See the following pages for notable subsets of hieroglyphs:[2]


Unicode character names follow Gardiner's sign list (padded with zeroes to three digits, i.e. Gardiner A1 is "EGYPTIAN HIEROGLYPH A001"), with the addition of glyph names in NL001–NL020 and NU001–NU022, representing the 20 Nomes of Lower Egypt and the 22 Nomes of Upper Egypt, respectively. Z12–Z16 are extensions to Gardiner's list, including some Egyptian numerals.

Hieroglyph Gardiner Unicode Description Transliteration Phonetic Notes
𓀀 A1 U+13000 seated man I (Masculine) (paeu)

male, man, typical masculine role, son, courtier (Masculine)

Commonly placed behind a name to indicate masculine sex of named person.
𓀁 A2 U+13001 man with hand to mouth eat (wnm)

drink (swr)

speak, think, feel, tell (sdjd)

refrain from speech (gr) advise/counsel (kAj)

love (mrj)

Activities involving the mouth, head, or ideas.
𓀂 A3 U+13002 man sitting on heel sit (achmsj) sitting activities
𓀃 A4 U+13003 seated man with hands raised offer, beseech (dwA)

to shield oneself (jmn)

𓀄 A5 U+13004 crouching man hiding behind wall hide (jmn) Determinative for jmn, to hide, to conceal, secret, mysterious; also hidden person or thing, concealed, secret, mysterious (verb, noun, adjective)
𓀅 A5A U+13005 seated man hiding behind wall
𓀆 A6 U+13006 seated man under vase from which water flows to be clean possibly refers to all aspects of 'clean' dependent on context, i.e. 'cleanliness', 'to cleanse', 'purify', etc.
𓀇 A6A U+13007 seated man reaching for libation stone, under vase from which water flows
𓀈 A6B U+13008 seated man reaching down, under vase from which water flows
𓀉 A7 U+13009 fatigued man to be tired or weak (wrdj)
𓀊 A8 U+1300A man performing hnw-rite rejoice, celebrate, to be jubilant (hnw) possibly also 'joyful', 'celebratory', etc.
𓀋 A9 U+1300B man steadying basket on head work, toil (kAt)

load (v. or n.), burden (Adjp)

carry or haul (fAj)

1a.-ꜣtp, ꜣdp
1b.-fa, fai
1a. for ꜣtp, ꜣdp, to load, to be laden, master of the load; equals Coptic language, otp; (minor use for 'tp, 'dp);
1b. for fa, fai, to carry, to bear; additional constructs for carrier, bearer, supporter, (and types thereof); for fa-dni, the "bearer-of-the-
-basket", see: Greek-Kanephoros;
2. for ka-t, kau-ti,
𓀌 A10 U+1300C seated man holding oar to saw (sqdw)
𓀍 A11 U+1300D seated man holding scepter of authority and shepherd's crook friend (ichnms)
𓀎 A12 U+1300E soldier with bow and quiver soldier, company/unit of soldiers (mnfyt)
𓀏 A13 U+1300F man with arms tied behind his back enemy (ichfti)

rebel (sbj)

possibly also 'criminal', 'traitor', 'prisoner'
𓀐 A14 U+13010 falling man with blood streaming from his head die (mwt)

enemy (ichfti)

The wound is either self-inflicted or from a weapon strike.

The A14 figure could be a youth or child, being depicted without clothing, while A14A would be an adult.

𓀑 A14A U+13011 man whose head is hit with an axe
𓀒 A15 U+13012 man falling trap (ichr) ḫr (kh + r) biliteral

kh voiceless velar fricative

[x] in Old Egyptian

Egyptian uniliteral signstransliteration

𓀓 A16 U+13013 man bowing down to bend or bow oneself (ksj) ks
(and ks, ksi)
A. Determinative for ks, ksi, & ks, to bow, to do homage, to submit;
B. same for ḫꜣb, (and thematic words of ḫꜣ-ꜣ-b, star & luminary, hippopotamus, lamp & light, etc.)
𓀔 A17 U+13014 child sitting with hand to mouth young, child (schrj)

orphan (nmach)

nnj, triliteral A17, depicted with bare head, indicates the figure as a 'lower' class than A17A.
𓀕 A17A U+13015 child sitting with arms hanging down Noble/Aristocratic Supplement for A3 and A17 sitting, sitting youth The head of A17A indicates the class of the figure to be of a 'higher' class than A17.
𓀖 A18 U+13016 child wearing red crown Child King
𓀗 A19 U+13017 bent man leaning on staff old, to be fragile (jaw)

Elder (smsw)

bigger (wr)

to learn (rhn)

to hit (ḥwj)

jk biliteral perhaps also wise and sage
𓀘 A20 U+13018 man leaning on forked staff Elder (smsw)
𓀙 A21 U+13019 man holding staff with handkerchief Civil Servant (sr)

Courtier (smr)

High Official

strike (achwj)

𓀚 A22 U+1301A statue of man with staff and scepter of authority statue (achntj), (twt)
𓀛 A23 U+1301B king with staff and mace with round head monarch, lord, ruler(jty)
𓀜 A24 U+1301C man striking with both hands to hit or strike (achwj)

power, strength

teach lesson or instruct (sbA)

call (njs)

be happy (achaj)

𓀝 A25 U+1301D man striking, with left arm hanging behind back to hit or strike (achwj)

possibly 'attack'

Most likely synonymous with A24
𓀞 A26 U+1301E man with one arm pointing forward servant,

to call

𓀟 A27 U+1301F hastening man jn (ḏ + n) Egyptian biliteral signs Original Wiki English translation: sound sign for, only in "through" (jn)

Possibly this means to transition.

𓀠 A28 U+13020 man with hands raised on either side to be happy or in high spirits (qAj)

mourn (achAj)

to be high, to exalt
𓀡 A29 U+13021 man upside down headlong or head over heels (sichd)
𓀢 A30 U+13022 man with hands raised in front offer, praise, laud, respect, entreat, beseech
𓀣 A31 U+13023 man with hands raised behind him to turn away the connotation of A31 is unclear.
𓀤 A32 U+13024 man dancing with arms to the back dance (ichbj)

cheer, rejoice (hy-hnw)

be happy

Ideogram or det. for (kh)bi, to dance; also det. for ib, ibu; ibꜣu, ibꜣ, for dance, dancer, etc.
𓀥 A32A U+13025 man dancing with arms to the front
𓀦 A33 U+13026 man with stick and bundle on shoulder to herd, (mnjw) journey,

tramp (ichwsj)

shepherd (mnjw)



traveler, (ichwsj)

construction, (qb)

foreign, strange(schmAw)

𓀧 A34 U+13027 man pounding in a mortar to stomp man grinding (etc.); to grind in a mortar, to build, to construct, etc.
𓀨 A35 U+13028 man building wall to build (qd) man constructing: a "Mason"; Ideogram or det. for qd, "to construct"; (see Wall, (Collapsing)-Wall)
𓀩 A36 U+13029 man kneading into vessel brewer (aftj)
𓀪 A37 U+1302A man in vessel brewer (aftj)
𓀫 A38 U+1302B man holding necks of two emblematic animals with panther heads Cusae (qjs)
𓀬 A39 U+1302C man on two giraffes Cusae (qjs)
𓀭 A40 U+1302D seated god Ptah

Month (mntjw)

divine/heavenly I (j),(jnk)

me, myself (wj)


𓀮 A40A U+1302E seated god with sceptre
𓀯 A41 U+1302F king with uraeus king (nsw)

majesty (achm)


I (j) (jnk)

me, myself (wj)

𓀰 A42 U+13030 king with uraeus and flagellum king (nsw)

majesty (achm)(royal)

I (j) (jnk)

me, myself (wj)

𓀱 A42A U+13031 king with uraeus and flagellum
𓀲 A43 U+13032 king wearing white crown King of Upper Egypt (nsw)

Osiris (wsjr)

𓀳 A43A U+13033 king wearing white crown with sceptre
𓀴 A44 U+13034 king wearing red crown with flagellum King of Upper Egypt (nsw)

Osiris (wsjr)

𓀵 A45 U+13035 king wearing red crown King of Lower Egypt (bjtj)
𓀶 A45A U+13036 king wearing red crown with sceptre
𓀷 A46 U+13037 king wearing red crown with flagellum King of Lower Egypt (bjtj)
𓀸 A47 U+13038 shepherd seated and wrapped in mantle, holding stick shepherd (mnjw)

guard (sAw)

𓀹 A48 U+13039 beardless man seated and holding knife belonging to (jrj)
𓀺 A49 U+1303A seated Syrian holding stick foreigner, Asian (aAmw)
𓀻 A50 U+1303B noble on chair courtier (smr)

entrepreneur as in 'one or distinguished one who undertakes a task or distinguished task'

I (j) (jnk)

me, myself (wj)

𓀼 A51 U+1303C noble on chair with flagellum to be of noble blood (schpsi)

entrepreneur of noble blood as in 'one or distinguished one who undertakes a task or distinguished task',

undertake a task (schpsi)

one who does things

𓀽 A52 U+1303D noble squatting with flagellum to be of noble blood (schpsi)

entrepreneur of noble blood[3] as in 'one or distinguished one who undertakes a task or distinguished task'


𓀾 A53 U+1303E standing mummy tut form, likeness, image, (double)
Tutankhamun: Form-Living-(of)- Amun
𓀿 A54 U+1303F lying mummy death (mnj)


𓁀 A55 U+13040 mummy on bed lie down(sdjr)

spend the night/overnight, corpse display (achAt)

Overnight meaning an overnight stay in any location, i.e. 'spend the night at home', 'spent the night in a hotel', 'slept over at (random person's name)'s house', etc...
𓁁 A56 U+13041 seated man holding stick
𓁂 A57 U+13042 man holding loaf on mat
𓁃 A58 U+13043 man applying hoe to ground
𓁄 A59 U+13044 man threatening with stick to take away/withhold
𓁅 A60 U+13045 man sowing seeds
𓁆 A61 U+13046 man looking over his shoulder
𓁇 A62 U+13047 Asiatic
𓁈 A63 U+13048 king on throne holding staff
𓁉 A64 U+13049 man sitting on heels holding forward cup
𓁊 A65 U+1304A man wearing tunic with fringes and holding mace
𓁋 A66 U+1304B man holding sistrum
𓁌 A67 U+1304C dwarf
𓁍 A68 U+1304D man holding up knife
𓁎 A69 U+1304E seated man with raised right arm and left arm hanging down
𓁏 A70 U+1304F seated man with raised arms
𓁐 B1 U+13050 seated woman woman in feminine role (st)

Goddess (ntjrt)

daughter (sAt)

widow (hArt)

singer (schm-ayt)

(feminine) I (j)

Commonly placed behind a name to indicate feminine sex of named person.
𓁑 B2 U+13051 pregnant woman to be pregnant (bkA)

conceive (jwr)

𓁒 B3 U+13052 woman giving birth to give birth (msj)
𓁓 B4 U+13053 combination of woman giving birth and three skins tied together to give birth (msj)
𓁔 B5 U+13054 woman suckling child to nurse, to nurture, to care for (rnn)

wet nurse n. def. 1 (mnat)

𓁕 B5A U+13055 woman suckling child (simplified)
𓁖 B6 U+13056 woman on chair with child on lap to rear
𓁗 B7 U+13057 queen wearing diadem and holding flower
𓁘 B8 U+13058 woman holding lotus flower
𓁙 B9 U+13059 woman holding sistrum
𓁚 C1 U+1305A god with sun-disk and uraeus rꜣ

Sun God Re

𓁛 C2 U+1305B god with falcon head and sun-disk holding ankh Sun God Re Variant of C1
𓁜 C2A U+1305C god with falcon head and sun-disk God Thot (djachwtj)
𓁝 C2B U+1305D C2A reversed
𓁞 C2C U+1305E C2 reversed
𓁟 C3 U+1305F god with ibis head --
𓁠 C4 U+13060 god with ram head God Chnum (achnmw) Det. or Ideo. ẖnmw "Khnum"
𓁡 C5 U+13061 god with ram head holding ankh God Chnum (achnmw) Variant of C4
𓁢 C6 U+13062 god with jackal head God Anubis (jnpw)

God Upuaut (wpi-wAwt)

𓁣 C7 U+13063 god with Seth-animal head God Seth
𓁤 C8 U+13064 ithyphallic god with two plumes, uplifted arm and flagellum God Min (mnw)
𓁥 C9 U+13065 goddess with horned sun-disk Goddess Hathor (achwt)
𓁦 C10 U+13066 goddess with feather Goddess Maat (mAat) Goddess Maat
𓁧 C10A U+13067 goddess with feather holding ankh
𓁨 C11 U+13068 god with arms supporting the sky and palm branch on head many,


God Hah (ach/u>ach)

million, many
Heh (god)
𓁩 C12 U+13069 god with two plumes and scepter God Amun (jmn) see Amun
𓁪 C13 U+1306A C12 reversed
𓁫 C14 U+1306B god with two plumes and scimitar
𓁬 C15 U+1306C C14 reversed
𓁭 C16 U+1306D god wearing red crown with ankh
𓁮 C17 U+1306E god with falcon head and two plumes God Month (mntjw) Det. and Ideo Mntw "Montu."
𓁯 C18 U+1306F squatting god God Tatenen (tA-tnn) Det. and Ideo. t3-ṯnnii "Tatjenen."
𓁰 C19 U+13070 mummy-shaped god God Ptah (ptach) Det. and Ideo. Ptḥ "Ptah."
𓁱 C20 U+13071 mummy-shaped god in shrine God Ptah (ptach) Variant of C19
𓁲 C21 U+13072 Bes
𓁳 C22 U+13073 god with falcon head and moon
𓁴 C23 U+13074 goddess with feline head and sun with uraeus
𓁵 C24 U+13075 god wearing red crown with scepter
𓁶 D1 U+13076 head head (tp) (dAdA)

back of head (hA)

behind (hA)

neglect, to leave behind (mkachA)

forehead (dhnt)

appoint (dhn)

1. Ideogram for tp, "head"; other uses related to actions of the head; (example "the tp of the rebels", 'the "chief" of the rebels');2. also for tp, see archaic dagger;3. (Narmer Palette shows 10 enemy heads-(decapitated))
𓁷 D2 U+13077 face face

on, around, over, for

ḥr 1. Bil. hr-(ḥr); 2. Ideogram for 'face';
3. A major preposition for "on, upon", etc.; additional preposition constructs; 4. (see also: Nose, sometimes used for the face)
𓁸 D3 U+13078 hair hair (schnj)

skin (jnm)

color (jwn)

nature, mourn (jAkb)

empty, barely, loss of hair (wsch)

𓁹 D4 U+13079 eye eye (jrt)

make (mA)

see (mAA)

watch, to be watchful, to be awake (rs)

to be blind (schp)

jr (ḏ+r) biliteral

(mA) (m + 3) the biliteral in "lion" (mAj)

𓁺 D5 U+1307A eye touched up with paint eye (jrt)

view (dgi)

to be blind (schp)

𓁻 D6 U+1307B eye with painted upper lid eye (jrt)

view (dgi)

to be blind (schp)

𓁼 D7 U+1307C eye with painted lower lid eye make-up / eye paint (msdmt)

decorate, adorn, to be beautiful (at)

view (prt)

see (mAA) (seldom, rarely used)

𓁽 D8 U+1307D eye enclosed in sandy tract in
𓁾 D8A U+1307E eye with painted lower lid enclosed in sandy tract
𓁿 D9 U+1307F eye with flowing tears
𓂀 D10 U+13080 Eye of Horus Udjat-eye (wdjAt) Eye of Horus
𓂁 D11 U+13081 left part of the eye of Horus abbreviation for Heqat-Maß grain
𓂂 D12 U+13082 pupil Determinative for pupil (djfdj) abbreviation for Heqat-measure grain
𓂃 D13 U+13083 eyebrow abbreviation for 1/8 Heqat-measure grain smd abbreviation for 1/8 Heqat-measure grain; in 2-fold execution (Determinative):, eyebrow (jnach) (two brows above one another)
𓂄 D14 U+13084 right part of eye of Horus abbreviation for 1/16 Heqat-measure grain
𓂅 D15 U+13085 diagonal marking of eye of Horus abbreviation for 1/32 Heqat-measure grain
𓂆 D16 U+13086 vertical marking of eye of Horus abbreviation for 1/64 Heqat-measure grain
𓂇 D17 U+13087 diagonal and vertical markings of eye of Horus Determinative Smell (sn) Ideogram for ear (msdjr)
𓂈 D18 U+13088 ear to listen


sound sign for ichnt Determinative and Ideogram for nose (fndj), be happy (rschw), be (sfn) face, front (ichnt), mild, itself wiedersetzten (btjn), disobediently
𓂉 D19 U+13089 nose, eye and cheek fnḏ/fnd-(fnḏ/fnd)
Ideogram or det. for the "nose", fnḏ/fnd-(fnḏ/fnd), (sh)rt-(šrt); det. for words relating to smell, joy, and the nose; det. for "face", (kh)nt, -(ẖnt), (and the phoneme for face)
𓂊 D20 U+1308A nose, eye and cheek (cursive) nose (fndj),

smell (sn),

be happy (rschw),

be (sfn)

face, front (ichnt),

mild, itself wiedersetzten (btjn),


ichnt Determinative and Ideogram for nose (fndj), smell (sn), be happy (rschw), be

(sfn) face, front (ichnt), mild, itself wiedersetzten (btjn), disobediently

𓂋 D21 U+1308B mouth rr
r to turn in the other direction

sound sign for r Ideogram for mouth. This on consonant sign is used in the so named Hieroglyphen-ABC to the reproduction of the consonant "r".

𓂌 D22 U+1308C mouth with two strokes Ideogram for 2/3 (rAwj)
𓂍 D23 U+1308D mouth with three strokes Ideogram for 3/4 (*ichmt-rAw)
𓂎 D24 U+1308E upper lip with teeth Ideogram for lip (spt), edge
𓂏 D25 U+1308F lips (Both) lips (sptj) the two lips
𓂐 D26 U+13090 liquid issuing from lips spit (psg),

speien, vomieren (bschj),


𓂑 D27 U+13091 small breast Suck (snq), breast (mndj), tutor (mnaj)
𓂒 D27A U+13092 large breast Suck (snq), breast (mndj), tutor (mnaj)
𓂓 D28 U+13093 two arms upraised Close, the Ka (life spirit) (kA) kꜣ
Bil. kꜣ, ka
𓂔 D29 U+13094 combination of hieroglyphs D28 and R12 the (divine) Ka (life spirit) (kA)
𓂕 D30 U+13095 two arms upraised with tail God Nehebkau (nachb-kAw)
𓂖 D31 U+13096 arms embracing club dead priest (achm-kA)
𓂗 D31A U+13097 two arms uppraised and club
𓂘 D32 U+13098 arms embracing into the arms,

comprise (jnq), embrace (achpt), open arms (pgA open)

𓂙 D33 U+13099 arms rowing row (achnj) fight (aachA) fight (aachA) (kh)n
Egyptian biliteral sign (kh)n, ẖn
𓂚 D34 U+1309A arms
with shield
and battle axe
'ḥꜣ Ideogram for ꜥḥꜣ, "combat"; (fight, contest, struggle)-(noun or verb)
𓂛 D34A U+1309B arms with shield and mace
𓂜 D35 U+1309C arms in gesture of negation not (n) (nn), that that not (jwtj), do not know (ichmj), shrine (ichm), forget (me in smich) n
𓂝 D36 U+1309D forearm (palm upwards) uniliteral sign representing Egyptian ayin
𓂞 D37 U+1309E forearm with bread cone give! (Jmj), give (rdjj) (djj) sound sign for dj (only in djdjw bus iris), mJ (rarely), m (especially in: see (mk)) to give, or given
𓂟 D38 U+1309F forearm with rounded loaf give! (Jmj) present (achnk) mJ, m
𓂠 D39 U+130A0 forearm with bowl ḥnk Determinative in ḥnk, "to make an offering", also: gift, offering, etc. (see also: List of portraiture offerings with Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs)
𓂡 D40 U+130A1 forearm with stick strongly (not), strike (achwj), examine (ichAj) power abbreviation for
𓂢 D41 U+130A2 forearm with palm down and bent upper arm Arm (gbA), shoulder (rmn), to the left (jAbj), sing (achsj), actions with arm: bend (achms), movement: stop (grach), deny (nj) protect (ichwj) lead (ichrp) nj (rarely)
𓂣 D42 U+130A3 forearm with palm down and straight upper arm yard (make) mḥ
𓂤 D43 U+130A4 forearm with flail (kh)uy
1. Ideogram for (kh)uy, "to protect"
𓂥 D44 U+130A5 arm with sekhem scepter --
𓂦 D45 U+130A6 arm with wand ḏsr
to be holy, to segregate
See djsr (arm with powerstick)
𓂧 D46 U+130A7 hand hand (djrt) 'red', in Egyptian hieroglyphs for word constructs
𓂨 D46A U+130A8 liquid falling from hand "to cense", "to pour out a libation"; as the noun, "incense", "incense offering", "dew";

B. For the noun, Coptic language eiote-(5 entries), (Egyptian id, idy, id.t), for dew, mist, vapour, rain-storm, moisture, exudation (under spelling of Egyp. lang. iad.

𓂩 D47 U+130A9 hand with palm up hand (djrt)
𓂪 D48 U+130AA hand without thumb hand width (schsp)
𓂫 D48A U+130AB hand holding egg
𓂬 D49 U+130AC fist grasp (Amm)
𓂭 D50 U+130AD one finger finger (djba) abbreviation for 10,000 (djba)
𓂮 D50A U+130AE two fingers
𓂯 D50B U+130AF three fingers
𓂰 D50C U+130B0 four fingers
𓂱 D50D U+130B1 five fingers
𓂲 D50E U+130B2 six fingers
𓂳 D50F U+130B3 seven fingers
𓂴 D50G U+130B4 eight fingers
𓂵 D50H U+130B5 nine fingers
𓂶 D50I U+130B6 five fingers (row)
𓂷 D51 U+130B7 one finger (horizontal) finger nail (ant). Activities with finger: measure (ichAj), take (tjAj), go (jw) (schm) dqr
𓂸 D52 U+130B8 phallus phallus (achnn), man-like, man (tjAy), donkey (aA), bull (kA) mt Censored by some OS/browser vendors.[citation needed]
Image rendering:
𓂹 D52A U+130B9 phallus with folded cloth Censored by some OS/browser vendors.
𓂺 D53 U+130BA phallus with emission in before (m bAach), phallus (achnn), urinate (wssch), seed (mtwt), man (tjAy), husband (hj) Censored by some OS/browser vendors.
Image rendering:
𓂻 D54 U+130BB legs walking approach (tkn) enterprise (nmtt), do not move, stop Injure leg (rd), thigh (mnt)
𓂼 D54A U+130BC hieratic legs walking
𓂽 D55 U+130BD legs walking backwards
𓂾 D56 U+130BE leg rd Ideo., det. for rd, "leg"; Det. "to tread";
(see Foot)
Also: for pds, w'rt, sbq.
𓂿 D57 U+130BF leg with knife mutilates become (jAtj)
𓃀 D58 U+130C0 foot place (bw) b
𓃁 D59 U+130C1 foot and forearm
𓃂 D60 U+130C2 foot under vase from which water flows purely its (wove)
𓃃 D61 U+130C3 three toes oriented leftward toe (sAach)
𓃄 D62 U+130C4 three toes oriented rightward toe (sAach)
𓃅 D63 U+130C5 two toes oriented leftward toe (sAach)
𓃆 D64 U+130C6 hand with palm down
𓃇 D65 U+130C7 lock of hair
𓃈 D66 U+130C8 arm with reed pen
𓃉 D67 U+130C9 one dot
𓃊 D67A U+130CA two dots
𓃋 D67B U+130CB three dots
𓃌 D67C U+130CC four dots
𓃍 D67D U+130CD five dots
𓃎 D67E U+130CE six dots
𓃏 D67F U+130CF seven dots
𓃐 D67G U+130D0 eight dots
𓃑 D67H U+130D1 nine dots
𓃒 E1 U+130D2 bull bull
𓃓 E2 U+130D3 bull charging kȝ-kḫt
𓃔 E3 U+130D4 calf bḥs
𓃕 E4 U+130D5 sacred cow ḥsȝt
𓃖 E5 U+130D6 cow suckling calf ȝms
𓃗 E6 U+130D7 horse ssmt jbr
𓃘 E7 U+130D8 donkey
𓃙 E8 U+130D9 kid ib jb 1. Phoneme ib for 'young goat';
2. Determinative for words of 'young farm animals'
3. (See also heart, for ib)
𓃚 E8A U+130DA kid jumping
𓃛 E9 U+130DB newborn hartebeest "iu" jw Determinative, for newborn animals, etc.
𓃜 E9A U+130DC mature bovine lying down
𓃝 E10 U+130DD ram bȝ ẖnmw
𓃞 E11 U+130DE ram bȝ ẖnmw
𓃟 E12 U+130DF pig rrj
𓃠 E13 U+130E0 cat miu mjw Determinative for cat, as well as for the onomatopoeic Egyptian miu
𓃡 E14 U+130E1 dog jw ṯsm
𓃢 E15 U+130E2 lying canine jnpw ḥrj-sštȝ
𓃣 E16 U+130E3 lying canine on shrine jnpw ḥrj-sštȝ
𓃤 E16A U+130E4 lying canine on shrine with flagellum
𓃥 E17 U+130E5 jackal sȝb
𓃦 E17A U+130E6 jackal looking back
𓃧 E18 U+130E7 wolf on standard wpj-wȝwt
𓃨 E19 U+130E8 wolf on standard with mace wpj-wȝwt
𓃩 E20 U+130E9 Set-animal -- stẖ, stš, swti ẖnnw Set (mythology)
𓃪 E20A U+130EA Set-animal on basket
𓃫 E21 U+130EB lying Set-animal nšnj
𓃬 E22 U+130EC lion mꜣi mȝj Ideogram for standing lion, mꜣi
𓃭 E23 U+130ED lying lion mȝj
𓃮 E24 U+130EE panther ȝby
𓃯 E25 U+130EF hippopotamus db
𓃰 E26 U+130F0 elephant 3bu
ȝbw 1. Determinative in ꜣbw, elephant (ultimate source of English word ivory); phonetic ꜣb 2. Ptolemaic Kingdom, new use of dnhr.
𓃱 E27 U+130F1 giraffe mmj sr
𓃲 E28 U+130F2 oryx gḥs mȝ-ḥḏ gazelle
(Gḥs-t, a Gazelle-Goddess)
𓃳 E28A U+130F3 oryx with irrigation system
𓃴 E29 U+130F4 gazelle gḥs
𓃵 E30 U+130F5 ibex njȝw
𓃶 E31 U+130F6 goat with collar sˁḥ
𓃷 E32 U+130F7 baboon jˁn ky qnd
𓃸 E33 U+130F8 monkey gjf
𓃹 E34 U+130F9 hare un
wn bil. wn
𓃺 E34A U+130FA hare (low)
𓃻 E36 U+130FB baboon
𓃼 E37 U+130FC baboon with receptacle and basket
𓃽 E38 U+130FD long-horned bull
𓃾 F1 U+130FE ox head
𓃿 F1A U+130FF bovine head
𓄀 F2 U+13100 charging ox head ḏnd
𓄁 F3 U+13101 hippopotamus head ȝt
𓄂 F4 U+13102 forepart of lion ḥȝt
𓄃 F5 U+13103 hartebeest head šsȝ
𓄄 F6 U+13104 forepart of hartebeest šsȝ
𓄅 F7 U+13105 ram head šfyt
𓄆 F8 U+13106 forepart of ram šfyt
𓄇 F9 U+13107 leopard
pḥty Determinative or abbreviation for "pehty"-(pḥty), "strength"
𓄈 F10 U+13108 head and neck of animal ḫḫ
𓄉 F11 U+13109 head and neck of animal ḫḫ
𓄊 F12 U+1310A head and neck of animal wsr
𓄋 F13 U+1310B horns wp, jp "open", the New Year Festival, (Opening the Year)
𓄌 F13A U+1310C horns
𓄍 F14 U+1310D horns with palm branch wpt-rnpt (see: Renpet)
𓄎 F15 U+1310E horns with palm branch and sun wpt-rnpt
𓄏 F16 U+1310F horn ˁb
𓄐 F17 U+13110 horn and vase from which water flows ˁbw
𓄑 F18 U+13111 tusk bḥ, ḥw
𓄒 F19 U+13112 lower jaw-bone of ox ˁrt
𓄓 F20 U+13113 tongue ns 1. Egyp. bil. ns.
2. A-tongue, and related words for speech; B-30th-(the 'Last Day of the Month'), and therefore, (next)-last.
𓄔 F21 U+13114 ear of bovine msḏr, ḏrḏ, sḏ
𓄕 F21A U+13115 hieratic ear of bovine
𓄖 F22 U+13116 hind-quarters of lion pḥ 1. ideas of 'physical force', and 'strength, (from the legs of the hindparts);
2. Biliteral pḥ;
3. see also: "forepart of lion", what is 'foremost', what 'excels', etc.,
𓄗 F23 U+13117 foreleg
of ox
ḫpš 1. (kh)p(sh), khepesh; 2. the reversed hieroglyph means, "strength", "power"
𓄘 F24 U+13118 F23 reversed ḫpš
𓄙 F25 U+13119 leg of
wḥm 1. meanings of: "repeat, repetition"
2. Tril. for wḥm;
3. Ideogram for "bovine leg"
4. (to repeat, narrate, recount, tell a story, tell a dream)
𓄚 F26 U+1311A skin of goat ẖn
𓄛 F27 U+1311B skin of cow with bent tail dḥr, pnw
𓄜 F28 U+1311C skin of cow with straight tail ȝb
𓄝 F29 U+1311D cow's skin pierced by arrow st (sṯ) piercing rays
see ubn, (sun-with-rays)
𓄞 F30 U+1311E water-
šd 1. Determinative for (sh)dw-(šdu), "belly"; phon. for (sh)d-(šd);
2. (See: similar shaped hieroglyph: whip)
𓄟 F31 U+1311F three skins tied together ms Bil. ms, "born", "born-of"; example, Pharaoh Ahmose, "Moon-Born"; Kamose, "Spirit-Born"
𓄠 F31A U+13120 three skins tied together
𓄡 F32 U+13121 animal's belly
𓄢 F33 U+13122 tail sd sd 1. Determinative for sd, "tail"; then phon., sd;
2. (See: "Festival of the Tail", the Sed festival)
𓄣 F34 U+13123 heart ib jb Ideogram or det. for ib, "heart"; (See also kid (goat), for ib)
𓄤 F35 U+13124 heart and
nfr Egyptian triliteral sign for nfr, (beauty), or "perfect"
𓄥 F36 U+13125 lung and windpipe sma
smȝ Egyptian "lung", sma-(smꜣ); used for union, (as in the "Two Lands", "Upper and Lower Egypt)-(Lower Egypt=the Nile Delta); Ideogram or det. for "unite", "join"
𓄦 F37 U+13126 backbone and ribs and spinal cord (sh)'t
jȝt wounds, slaughter, carnage
𓄧 F37A U+13127 backbone and ribs
𓄨 F38 U+13128 backbone and ribs jȝt
𓄩 F38A U+13129 backbone and ribs and spinal cord
𓄪 F39 U+1312A backbone and spinal cord jmȝḫ
𓄫 F40 U+1312B backbone and spinal cords ꜣu
ȝw to be long, length, to extend
Pharaoh: Extent of Happiness-(for Egypt-Land),
, (on Reliefs)
(i.e. the Welfare of the Nation)
𓄬 F41 U+1312C vertebrae psḏ
𓄭 F42 U+1312D rib spr
𓄮 F43 U+1312E ribs spḥt
𓄯 F44 U+1312F bone with meat isu
iw', iw
jsw 1. Phoneme, isu-"Reward". 2. Determinative for thigh bone, iw' -"Heir", Inheritance, Ancestry, (phonetic iw. Also, tibia, swt.
𓄰 F45 U+13130 uterus vulva, womb, cow jdt
𓄱 F45A U+13131 uterus
𓄲 F46 U+13132 intestine p(kh)ar, rr
pẖr, dbn Egyptian language, utchb; from dikeworks, to turn round, to change the direction, (crop rows)
𓄳 F46A U+13133 intestine pẖr, dbn
𓄴 F47 U+13134 intestine pẖr, dbn
𓄵 F47A U+13135 intestine pẖr, dbn
𓄶 F48 U+13136 intestine pẖr, dbn
𓄷 F49 U+13137 intestine pẖr, dbn
𓄸 F50 U+13138 combination of F46 and S29 sp(kh)r spẖr to write, to engrave
𓄹 F51 U+13139 piece of flesh ȝs, ws
𓄺 F51A U+1313A three pieces of flesh horizontally
𓄻 F51B U+1313B three pieces of flesh vertically
𓄼 F51C U+1313C F51 reversed
𓄽 F52 U+1313D excrement ḥs ḥs Determinative in hs-(ḥs), "excrement"
𓄾 F53 U+1313E divine rod with ram head
𓄿 G1 U+1313F Egyptian vulture 3 uniliteral sign representing Egyptian alef
𓅀 G2 U+13140 two Egyptian vultures 33
𓅁 G3 U+13141 combination of Egyptian vulture and sickle m3
𓅂 G4 U+13142 buzzard tyu tjw Tril. tyu
𓅃 G5 U+13143 falcon ḥrw Horus; about 200 Horus-god names; an example: Horus-the-Child, Greek language-equivalent, arpokrates; Egyptian, Hru-p-(kh)ard(d=t),
𓅄 G6 U+13144 combination of falcon and flaggellum Falcon (bjk) Id. ḥrw
𓅅 G6A U+13145 falcon on basket
𓅆 G7 U+13146 falcon on standard Various words related

to the divine

nswt or ny-sw.t
𓅇 G7A U+13147 falcon in boat
𓅈 G7B U+13148 falcon in boat
𓅉 G8 U+13149 falcon on collar of beads Id. ḥr-nbw/bjk-nbw
𓅊 G9 U+1314A falcon with sun on head skr
𓅋 G10 U+1314B falcon in Sokar barque Sokar, ḥnw-bark
𓅌 G11 U+1314C image of falcon
𓅍 G11A U+1314D image of falcon on standard
𓅎 G12 U+1314E combination of image of falcon and flagellum
𓅏 G13 U+1314F image of falcon with two plumes Sopdu Id. ḥrw nḫnj
𓅐 G14 U+13150 vulture Vulture (nrt) mwt
𓅑 G15 U+13151 combination of vulture and flagellum Mut Id. mwt
𓅒 G16 U+13152 vulture and cobra each on a basket Id. nbtj
𓅓 G17 U+13153 owl
𓅔 G18 U+13154 two owls mm
𓅕 G19 U+13155 combination of owl and forearm with conical loaf m, mj
𓅖 G20 U+13156 combination of owl and forearm m, mj
𓅗 G20A U+13157 combination of owl and mouth
𓅘 G21 U+13158 guinea-fowl nḥ
nḥ, Id. nḥ 1. Egyp. bil. nḥ, for the bird; phon. for nḥ;
2. Ideas of petition, supplicate, beseech; for Egyptian language nḥ-t, nḥḥ-t, oil, unguent, equivalent of Coptic language, "neh";
3. for nḥḥ, eternity, or ever and ever, (see ḥḥ), Coptic "eneh".
𓅙 G22 U+13159 hoopoe ḏb
𓅚 G23 U+1315A lapwing rḫyt-people Id. rḫyt
𓅛 G24 U+1315B lapwing with twisted wings rḫyt-people Id. rḫyt
𓅜 G25 U+1315C northern bald ibis 3(kh)
3ḫ Bil. ꜣ(kh), for the 'divine'; also the ideogram
𓅝 G26 U+1315D sacred Ibis on standard Ibis (hb) Id. ḏḥwtj God Thoth, the god of scribes
𓅞 G26A U+1315E sacred Ibis
𓅟 G27 U+1315F flamingo Flamingo (dšr) dšr
𓅠 G28 U+13160 glossy ibis gm
gm to find, or to discover
𓅡 G29 U+13161 saddle-billed stork bA
b3 |
𓅢 G30 U+13162 three saddle-billed storks bAiu Id. b3w divine souls, souls of gods
𓅣 G31 U+13163 heron Heron/Bennu-bird (bnw)
1. the heron-like Bennu;
2. Determinative for bnw, the "Phoenix-bird";
3. For 'Phoenix' & Harp, in both cultures-(Egypt & Mesopotamia), one of few Akkadian, Semitic word similarities: Akkadian: banuA, to create, build, generate; and banuB, to be good, beautiful.[4]
𓅤 G32 U+13164 heron on perch To inundate (bˁḥj) Id. bˁḥj
𓅥 G33 U+13165 cattle egret To tremble (sd3/sd3d3)
𓅦 G34 U+13166 ostrich Ostrich (njw)
𓅧 G35 U+13167 cormorant ˁq
𓅨 G36 U+13168 swallow Swallow (mnt) wr bil. wr
𓅩 G36A U+13169 swallow (low)
𓅪 G37 U+1316A sparrow Various words related to

the idea of small or bad

𓅫 G37A U+1316B sparrow (low)
𓅬 G38 U+1316C white-fronted goose Bird s3, s3-t
1. "son of", "daughter of", sa, sa-t; 2. goose
𓅭 G39 U+1316D pintail Pintail duck (st) s3
𓅮 G40 U+1316E pintail flying p3
p3 Ideogram and bil. for pꜣ, to fly; phoneme for pꜣ
𓅯 G41 U+1316F pintail alighting p3
𓅰 G42 U+13170 widgeon To fatten (wš3), Food (ḏf3w) Id. wš3
𓅱 G43 U+13171 quail chick w
w, Id. w 1. Unil. w, or u;
2. Either "quail chick" or equivalent coil (hieroglyph), Gardiner no. Z7,
, used as the Plural at word endings; 3. (see also: Plural)
𓅲 G43A U+13172 combination of quail chick and flat loaf
𓅳 G44 U+13173 two quail chicks ww
𓅴 G45 U+13174 combination of quail chick and forearm
𓅵 G45A U+13175 combination of quail chick and forearm with conical loaf
𓅶 G46 U+13176 combination of quail chick and sickle m3w
𓅷 G47 U+13177 duckling tjꜣ
ṯ3, Id. ṯ3 Bil. (tsh)ꜣ, t_ꜣ, for 'baby bird', duckling; Ideogram for 'young bird'
(The Egyptian vizier is the "tshat(y)")
𓅸 G48 U+13178 three ducklings in nest Nest, pond, marsh () Id.
𓅹 G49 U+13179 three ducklings in pool Nest, pond, marsh () Id.
𓅺 G50 U+1317A two plovers Id. rḫtj
𓅻 G51 U+1317B bird pecking at fish To catch fish (ḥ3m/ḥjm)
𓅼 G52 U+1317C goose picking up grain To feed (snm)
𓅽 G53 U+1317D human-headed bird with bowl with smoke Ba (b3), personality Id. b3 Ba
𓅾 G54 U+1317E plucked bird To wring (birds' necks) (wšn) snḏ 1. Determinative for u(sh)n, (wšn), Egyptian: "twist the neck (of a bird)";
2. Phonetically sn(tj), (snṯ)
3. (see Trussed-goose Palette)
𓅿 H1 U+1317F head of pintail bird (in ringing of bird's neck wSn) mAa, wschm, pq (pAq) 1. an abbreviation for ꜣpd, "bird"
𓆀 H2 U+13180 head of crested bird mAa, wschm, pq (pAq) 1. Phoneme for pq;
2. Also as:
H2a(head ofduck(one type))
S28(cloth apparelcoveringetc
𓆁 H3 U+13181 head of spoonbill pAq
𓆂 H4 U+13182 head of vulture nr, rmT in "people"
𓆃 H5 U+13183 wing wing (djnach), fly (pA) wing
𓆄 H6 U+13184 feather feather (schwt), Maat (mAat) schw Goddess Shu; Maat's Shu feather
𓆅 H6A U+13185 hieratic feather
𓆆 H7 U+13186 claw schA (only in country schAt)
𓆇 H8 U+13187 egg son, egg (swacht) det. for feminine in goddess names, wives, etc.; det. in swḥt, 'egg'
𓆈 I1 U+13188 gecko '(sh)a
1. "multitudes", (=the populace, etc.); 2. Det. or ideo. in 'šꜣ "lizard"; also the tril.
𓆉 I2 U+13189 turtle (sh)t
𓆊 I3 U+1318A crocodile
𓆋 I4 U+1318B crocodile
on shrine
sbk Ideogram of det. for sbk, (Sobek); (see also Crocodile)
𓆌 I5 U+1318C crocodile with curved tail
𓆍 I5A U+1318D image of crocodile
𓆎 I6 U+1318E crocodile scales
𓆏 I7 U+1318F frog ḥqt
(bḫn' and qrr)
Determinative, frog; (See also (frog)-Goddess Heket, her 'emblem'); noun words for 'frog': 'bḫn, qrr
𓆐 I8 U+13190 tadpole ḥfn
𓆑 I9 U+13191 horned viper f 1. Uniliteral f;
2. 3rd person singular masculine suffix pronoun
𓆒 I9A U+13192 horned viper crawling out of enclosure
𓆓 I10 U+13193 cobra ḏd
to speak
𓆔 I10A U+13194 cobra with feather
𓆕 I11 U+13195 two cobras
𓆖 I11A U+13196 combination of cobra, flat loaf and sandy tract
𓆗 I12 U+13197 erect cobra i'r-t Uraeus; Determinative for jꜥrt "uraeus", and also in goddess names
𓆘 I13 U+13198 erect cobra on basket
𓆙 I14 U+13199 snake
𓆚 I15 U+1319A snake
𓆛 K1 U+1319B tilapia Nile tilapia ỉn.t or flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) int, in
Egyptian biliteral sign jn; det. for "Tilapia", jnt; phoneme for jn; the common fish shape for reliefs & art; also for the fish cosmetic palettes.
𓆜 K2 U+1319C barbel for bw
𓆝 K3 U+1319D mullet flathead mullet (adw) or adj (ad) only in "country commissioner (adj-mr)"
𓆞 K4 U+1319E elephant-snout fish Mormyrus (achAt) achA 1. Phonetic value (kh)a-((kh)ꜣ), from name, ideogram (kh)it-(ḫit); 2. Bil. for (kh)a
𓆟 K5 U+1319F Petrocephalus bane Petrocephalus bane (rm) bs
𓆠 K6 U+131A0 fish scale fish scale (nschmt)
𓆡 K7 U+131A1 puffer Nile pufferfish,

annoying (schpt)

𓆢 K8 U+131A2 catfish
𓆣 L1 U+131A3 dung beetle Dung beetle, become, emerge kpr See: Scarab (artifact)
See: God Khepri
𓆤 L2 U+131A4 bee bee (bjt) for bjt (only in "king of lower Egypt" (bjt)) This hieroglyphic shows the very important hieroglyphic for bee, that stands also for honey. It is found very often on pharaonic naming-inscriptions-(as the combined term: Nesu-bity), because this hieroglyphic is a symbol for Lower Egypt together with the sedge, the symbol that stands for Upper Egypt, showing the domination of the Pharaohs over Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.

see also nswt-bjt

𓆥 L2A U+131A5 combination of bee, sedge and two flat loafs
𓆦 L3 U+131A6 fly Fly (aped)
𓆧 L4 U+131A7 locust Grasshopper (snachmn), locust
𓆨 L5 U+131A8 centipede centipede (spA)
𓆩 L6 U+131A9 shell ichA (rarely)
𓆪 L6A U+131AA L6 reversed
𓆫 L7 U+131AB scorpion Scorpion

Goddess Selkis (srqt)

Modified for religious reasons
𓆬 L8 U+131AC
𓆭 M1 U+131AD tree
𓆮 M1A U+131AE combination of tree and branch
𓆯 M1B U+131AF combination of tree and horned viper
𓆰 M2 U+131B0 plant ḥn-(from ḥni)
is-(from isw)
1. Determinative for various plants or flowers;
2. Two phonemes for "cane", and "canes", ḥn-(from ḥni), is-(from isw).
3. flower (garland), plant, branch, seed
4. Rosetta Stone, line R12, The people shall wear garlands on their heads, shall be made festal...
𓆱 M3 U+131B1 branch (kh)t
1. Bil. (kh)t; 2. Ideo. or det. for wood, tree; 3. linear measure, (=100 cubits)
𓆲 M3A U+131B2 combination of owl and branch
𓆳 M4 U+131B3 palm branch
𓆴 M5 U+131B4 combination of palm branch and flat loaf
𓆵 M6 U+131B5 combination of palm branch and mouth
𓆶 M7 U+131B6 combination of palm branch and stool
𓆷 M8 U+131B7 pool with lotus flowers š3-(sh)a 1. Ideogram & Phoneme for š3-(sh)a, "flooded country"; 2. Ideogram for a(kh)t, Season of the Inundation
𓆸 M9 U+131B8 lotus flower sšn
(also snšn)
A. Ideogram or det. in sšn, lotus flower;
B. Greek language 'souson';
C. also det. for snšn, for lily, lotus.
𓆹 M10 U+131B9 lotus bud with straight stem
𓆺 M10A U+131BA lotus bud with winding stem
𓆻 M11 U+131BB flower on long twisted stalk utn
an offering, gift; make a gift; see utchb-uḏb
𓆼 M12 U+131BC one lotus plant 1000
Ideogram for (kh)a-(ḫꜣ), a part of the "lotus"; phonetically used for ḫꜣ; in Egyptian mathematics, 1000: (see also ksi, to bow, to bend, to do homage, etc., for ḫꜣ-ꜣ-b)
𓆽 M12A U+131BD two lotus plants 2000
𓆾 M12B U+131BE three lotus plants 3000
𓆿 M12C U+131BF four lotus plants 4000
𓇀 M12D U+131C0 five lotus plants 5000
𓇁 M12E U+131C1 six lotus plants 6000
𓇂 M12F U+131C2 seven lotus plants 7000
𓇃 M12G U+131C3 eight lotus plants 8000
𓇄 M12H U+131C4 nine lotus plants 9000
𓇅 M13 U+131C5 papyrus

Tril. wꜣḏ
𓇆 M14 U+131C6 combination of papyrus and cobra
𓇇 M15 U+131C7 clump of papyrus with buds
𓇈 M15A U+131C8 combination of clump of papyrus with buds and village
𓇉 M16 U+131C9 clump of papyrus
𓇊 M16A U+131CA combination of clump of papyrus and village
𓇋 M17 U+131CB reed y alphabetic uniliteral vowel y
𓇌 M17A U+131CC two reeds
𓇍 M18 U+131CD combination of reed and legs walking i(i)
combined sound-sign, determinative for i(+i); come, to come, coming, etc
𓇎 M19 U+131CE heaped conical cakes between reed and club
𓇏 M20 U+131CF field of reeds
𓇐 M21 U+131D0 reeds with root
𓇑 M22 U+131D1 rush -- --
𓇒 M22A U+131D2 two rushes
𓇓 M23 U+131D3 sedge sw see nswt-bjt
𓇔 M24 U+131D4 combination of sedge and mouth
𓇕 M24A U+131D5 lily
𓇖 M25 U+131D6 combination of flowering sedge and mouth rs Upper Egypt. Also, the South.
𓇗 M26 U+131D7 flowering
flowering rush; also Gardiner nos. M25, M27, M28,
𓇘 M27 U+131D8 combination of flowering sedge and forearm
𓇙 M28 U+131D9 combination of flowering sedge and hobble
𓇚 M28A U+131DA three lilies on village
𓇛 M29 U+131DB seed-pod nḏm
1. Ideogram for types of tree nḏm, and "sweet", nḏm;
2. Egyptian triliteral sign for nḏm "date"
𓇜 M30 U+131DC root bnri Ideogram or det. for bnr, sweet, date; for Egyptian language bnryt, sweetness, a favor, anything sweet, pleasant or nice; for bnry, the 'confectioner'.
𓇝 M31 U+131DD rhizome
𓇞 M31A U+131DE tree in vase
𓇟 M32 U+131DF rhizome
𓇠 M33 U+131E0 3 grains horizontally
𓇡 M33A U+131E1 3 grains vertically
𓇢 M33B U+131E2 3 grains in triangular arrangement
𓇣 M34 U+131E3 ear of emmer
𓇤 M35 U+131E4 stack
(of grain)
Determinative in 1. 'ḥ'-'ḥ'u, for "stack-(of grain)"; (or other determiners for: food, provisions, stores, heaps of grain, wealth, riches, abundance);
2. and (kh)ty, 'heap of grain', where (kh)tyt, is "barn floor", or "place where grain is stored for sale"
𓇥 M36 U+131E5 bundle of flax 1-ḏr
many word
1. Bil. & phoneme for ḏr;
2. Determinative for dmꜣ, to tie together, to bind, to gather together, to collect
𓇦 M37 U+131E6 bundle of flax
𓇧 M38 U+131E7 wide bundle of flax
𓇨 M39 U+131E8 basket of fruit or grain 1-[ḏr]
1. see "Bundle of Flax";
2. interchangeable with 'Bundle of Flax', bil. ḏr;
3A. Determinative; 3B. for the Decree of Canopus, used once, line 18, for Egyptian language rd, (to grow, to flourish, to spring up, to spread out)
as a replacement for the "Garland"-(3-Plants-Bundle), "...., and the great processional festival of the Goddess Bast, because the time for the in-gathering of all the crops, and the inundation of the Nile (River) taketh place therein. ...."[5]
𓇩 M40 U+131E9 bundle of reeds
𓇪 M40A U+131EA bundle of reeds
𓇫 M41 U+131EB piece of wood
𓇬 M42 U+131EC flower
𓇭 M43 U+131ED vine on trellis
𓇮 M44 U+131EE thorn spd
Determinative for spd, "readiness", sharp, pointed, etc.; det. for srt, "thorn" Also means "giving"
𓇯 N1 U+131EF sky pt sky, (or heaven), and often used as God/Pharaoh XXXX, Lord of Sky/Heaven,
hieroglyph block:
𓇰 N2 U+131F0 sky with sceptre
𓇱 N3 U+131F1 sky with sceptre grḥ night, darkness
𓇲 N4 U+131F2 sky with rain
𓇳 N5 U+131F3 sun Ra/Re ( Every pharaoh's prenomen has 'Re' in it, the name of the sun god (sometimes written 'Ra').
𓇴 N6 U+131F4 sun with uraeus
𓇵 N7 U+131F5 combination of sun and butcher's block
𓇶 N8 U+131F6 sunshine see sun-shining-with-rays (hieroglyph)
𓇷 N9 U+131F7 moon with lower half obscured
𓇸 N10 U+131F8 moon with lower section obscured
𓇹 N11 U+131F9 crescent moon i'ḥ 1. Det. "moon"; 2. Ideogram, i'h-(i'ḥ), 'moon'; 3. items of the 'month', (timeperiod); see ploughing, laborer ("planting"), Gardiner no. T24, (also i'ḥ)
𓇺 N12 U+131FA crescent moon
𓇻 N13 U+131FB combination of crescent moon and star
𓇼 N14 U+131FC star sb3

Ideogram or det. for sba-(sbꜣ), "star"; phonetic for dua-(dwꜣ)(dua); (see Duat)
𓇽 N15 U+131FD star in circle dwꜣt Otherworld, the Duat
𓇾 N16 U+131FE land with grains tꜣ Biliteral tꜣ "land", "country", etc.
𓇿 N17 U+131FF land variant of N16
𓈀 N18 U+13200 sandy tract
𓈁 N18A U+13201 combination of sandy tract andripple of water
𓈂 N18B U+13202 combination of roll of bread and bolt
𓈃 N19 U+13203 two sandy tracts tꜣwy in ḥrw tꜣš(w) tꜣwy "Horus who joins the two lands"
𓈄 N20 U+13204 tongue of land
𓈅 N21 U+13205 short tongue of land
𓈆 N22 U+13206 broad tongue of land
𓈇 N23 U+13207 irrigation canal
𓈈 N24 U+13208 irrigation canal system spꜣt spꜣt
𓈉 N25 U+13209 three hills
𓈊 N25A U+1320A three hills (low)
𓈋 N26 U+1320B two hills ḏw
Bil. ḏw, for "mountain"; ideogram and phoneme for "mountain"
𓈌 N27 U+1320C sun over mountain a(kh)t
Ideogram for a(kh)t-(ꜣḫt), "horizon"; (see Akhenaten's townsite, Akhetaten)
𓈍 N28 U+1320D rays of sun over hill (kh)'
Bil. (kh)' , ḫ'; sun-rising (hieroglyph)
𓈎 N29 U+1320E slope of hill
𓈏 N30 U+1320F mound of earth
𓈐 N31 U+13210 road with shrubs
𓈑 N32 U+13211 lump of clay
𓈒 N33 U+13212 grain
𓈓 N33A U+13213 three grains
𓈔 N34 U+13214 ingot of metal
𓈕 N34A U+13215 ingot of metal
𓈖 N35 U+13216 ripple of water The letter n (+of,by)
𓈗 N35A U+13217 three ripples of water
𓈘 N36 U+13218 canal mr mr-(Beloved of XX); det. water; (see also for mr, Chisel)
𓈙 N37 U+13219 pool (sh)
uniliteral (sh)-š, a pool
𓈚 N37A U+1321A pool
𓈛 N38 U+1321B deep pool
𓈜 N39 U+1321C pool with water 1.-inr
1. block of stone, (or brick, etc.)
2. Ideogram or det. in inr for "stone", "block", etc.
3. Det. in types of building stones or types of minerals;
4A. Det. for dbt-(ḏbt), "brick"; 4B. dby-t-plinth, pedestal
𓈝 N40 U+1321D pool
with legs
-- pool with walking legs
𓈞 N41 U+1321E well with ripple of water ḥmt
Phonemes for ḥmt, biꜣ; A "basin", but commonly used for 'wife', or 'woman'
𓈟 N42 U+1321F well with line of water
𓈠 NL1 U+13220 1st Nome of Lower Egypt (NL001), Aneb-Hetch
𓈡 NL2 U+13221 2nd Nome of Lower Egypt (NL002)
𓈢 NL3 U+13222 3rd Nome of Lower Egypt (NL003)Wetjes-Hor
𓈣 NL4 U+13223 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL004)
𓈤 NL5 U+13224 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL005)
𓈥 NL5a U+13225 5th Nome of Lower Egypt (NL005A)
𓈦 NL6 U+13226 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL006)
𓈧 NL7 U+13227 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL007)
𓈨 NL8 U+13228 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL008)
𓈩 NL9 U+13229 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL009)
𓈪 NL10 U+1322A Nome of Lower Egypt (NL010)
𓈫 NL11 U+1322B Nome of Lower Egypt (NL011)
𓈬 NL12 U+1322C Nome of Lower Egypt (NL012)
𓈭 NL13 U+1322D Nome of Lower Egypt (NL013)
𓈮 NL14 U+1322E Nome of Lower Egypt (NL014)
𓈯 NL15 U+1322F Nome of Lower Egypt (NL015)
𓈰 NL16 U+13230 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL016)
𓈱 NL17 U+13231 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL017)
𓈲 NL17a U+13232 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL017A)
𓈳 NL18 U+13233 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL018)
𓈴 NL19 U+13234 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL019)
𓈵 NL20 U+13235 Nome of Lower Egypt (NL020)
𓈶 NU1 U+13236 1st Nome of Upper Egypt (NU001)Ta-Seti
𓈷 NU2 U+13237 2nd Nome of Upper Egypt (NU002)
𓈸 NU3 U+13238 3rd Nome of Upper Egypt (NU003)Nekhen (nome)
𓈹 NU4 U+13239 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU004)
𓈺 NU5 U+1323A Nome of Upper Egypt (NU005)Nomos of Harawî
𓈻 NU6 U+1323B Nome of Upper Egypt (NU006)
𓈼 NU7 U+1323C Nome of Upper Egypt (NU007)
𓈽 NU8 U+1323D Nome of Upper Egypt (NU008)
𓈾 NU9 U+1323E Nome of Upper Egypt (NU009)
𓈿 NU10 U+1323F Nome of Upper Egypt (NU010)
𓉀 NU10a U+13240 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU010A)
𓉁 NU11 U+13241 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU011)
𓉂 NU11a U+13242 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU011A)
𓉃 NU12 U+13243 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU012)
𓉄 NU13 U+13244 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU013)
𓉅 NU14 U+13245 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU014)
𓉆 NU15 U+13246 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU015)
𓉇 NU16 U+13247 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU016)
𓉈 NU17 U+13248 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU017)
𓉉 NU18 U+13249 Nome of Upper Egypt (NU018)
𓉊 NU18a U+1324A Nome of Upper Egypt (NU018A)
𓉋 NU19 U+1324B Nome of Upper Egypt (NU019)
𓉌 NU20 U+1324C Nome of Upper Egypt (NU020)
𓉍 NU21 U+1324D Nome of Upper Egypt (NU021)
𓉎 NU22 U+1324E Nome of Upper Egypt (NU022)
𓉏 NU22a U+1324F Nome of Upper Egypt (NU022A)
𓉐 O1 U+13250 house pr
bil. pr; used extensively in "placenames"-(home of God XXX); placenames for a Pharaoh, etc.
1. Ideogram, house, estate; 2. bil. pr; 3. Determinative for 'building', 'location'
U+13251 combination of house and sandal-strap
𓉒 O2 U+13252 combination of house and mace with round head
𓉓 O3 U+13253 combination of house, oar, tall loaf and beer jug
𓉔 O4 U+13254 shelter h 1. first alphabetic h; 2. Egyptian uniliteral sign h; 3. see second uniliteral h, the wick (hieroglyph), Gardiner no. V28,
𓉕 O5 U+13255 winding wall from upper-left corner
𓉖 O5A U+13256 winding wall from lower-left corner
𓉗 O6 U+13257 enclosure ḥut 1. Ideogram for hwt-(ḥut), palace, temple, tomb; see also:
palace, 'ḥ
𓉘 O6A U+13258 opening of ḥwt-enclosure
𓉙 O6B U+13259 opening of ḥwt-enclosure
𓉚 O6C U+1325A opening of ḥwt-enclosure
𓉛 O6D U+1325B closing of ḥwt-enclosure
𓉜 O6E U+1325C closing of ḥwt-enclosure
𓉝 O6F U+1325D closing of ḥwt-enclosure
𓉞 O7 U+1325E combination of enclosure and flat loaf
𓉟 O8 U+1325F combination of enclosure, flat loaf and wooden column
𓉠 O9 U+13260 combination of enclosure, flat loaf and basket
𓉡 O10 U+13261 combination of enclosure and falcon
𓉢 O10A U+13262 combination of enclosure and sandal-strap
𓉣 O10B U+13263 combination of enclosure and bee
𓉤 O10C U+13264 combination of shrine in profile and face
𓉥 O11 U+13265 palace 'ḥ 1. Ideogram, 'h-('ḥ), "palace"; see also:
palace, temple, tomb, ḥut
𓉦 O12 U+13266 combination of palace and forearm
𓉧 O13 U+13267 battlemented enclosure
𓉨 O14 U+13268 part of battlemented enclosure
𓉩 O15 U+13269 enclosure with cup and flat loaf
𓉪 O16 U+1326A gateway with serpents
𓉫 O17 U+1326B open gateway with serpents
𓉬 O18 U+1326C shrine in profile
𓉭 O19 U+1326D shrine with fence
𓉮 O19A U+1326E shrine
𓉯 O20 U+1326F shrine
𓉰 O20A U+13270 shrine
𓉱 O21 U+13271 façade of shrine
𓉲 O22 U+13272 booth with pole
𓉳 O23 U+13273 double platform
𓉴 O24 U+13274 pyramid
𓉵 O24A U+13275 pedestal of sun temple
𓉶 O25 U+13276 obelisk tḫn Ideogram or det. for t(kh)n, obelisk
𓉷 O25A U+13277 obelisk and pedestal of sun temple
𓉸 O26 U+13278 stela uḏ-wḏ
1. Ideogram or det. for wḏ, a stele; det. for 'ḥ'w, station (of a procession), "stele"; used also for 'memorial slab', boundary stone, landmark. 2. NOTE: there are other listed, (or Non-listed) hieroglyphs for boundary steles:
Aa20(similar) O26(variants)
3. Similar spelling for wḏ: uses a stone block as det. and hand: ud
𓉹 O27 U+13279 hall of columns
𓉺 O28 U+1327A column
𓉻 O29 U+1327B horizontal wooden column ˁȝ 'Great'
𓉼 O29A U+1327C vertical wooden column
𓉽 O30 U+1327D support
𓉾 O30A U+1327E four supports
𓉿 O31 U+1327F door 'ꜣ 1. Egyptian language, 'ꜣ, equivalent to
2. Determinative, 'open'
𓊀 O32 U+13280 gateway
𓊁 O33 U+13281 façade of palace
𓊂 O33A U+13282 closing of srḫ-enclosure
𓊃 O34 U+13283 door bolt s
Unil. s, (the horizontal s); the vertical s is Gardiner no. S29, a folded cloth,
𓊄 O35 U+13284 combination of bolt and legs
𓊅 O36 U+13285 wall inb 1. Ideogram or det. for inb, "wall";2. (a det. for related words)
𓊆 O36A U+13286 opening of oval fortified wall enclosure
𓊇 O36B U+13287 closing of oval fortified wall enclosure
𓊈 O36C U+13288 opening of square fortified wall enclosure
𓊉 O36D U+13289 closure of square fortified wall enclosure
𓊊 O37 U+1328A falling wall
𓊋 O38 U+1328B corner of wall
𓊌 O39 U+1328C stone
𓊍 O40 U+1328D stair single -- a determinative
𓊎 O41 U+1328E double stairway q3, q33, q3i 1. Determinative for qꜣ-(constructs): high ground, hill, high place;
2. same for iꜣr, to climb
𓊏 O42 U+1328F fence (sh)sp
tril. (sh)sp-šsp-(shesep)
𓊐 O43 U+13290 low fence
𓊑 O44 U+13291 emblem of Min iaut-i3wt 1. Ideogram or det. for iaut-(iꜣwt), for "post", "office", "position", etc.;
2. the fetish of the "Temple of Min"
𓊒 O45 U+13292 domed building
𓊓 O46 U+13293 domed building
𓊔 O47 U+13294 enclosed mound
𓊕 O48 U+13295 enclosed mound sp time; see also "threshing floor", Gardiner no. O50,
𓊖 O49 U+13296 village
𓊗 O50 U+13297 threshing floor sp
(from spt)
Biliteral sp; (equal to Egyptian: "time"); see also "time", Gardiner no. O48,
𓊘 O50A U+13298 hieratic threshing floor
𓊙 O50B U+13299 O50A reversed
𓊚 O51 U+1329A pile of grain (sh)nut
Ideo. or det., šnwt-(sh)nut, "granary"
𓊛 P1 U+1329B boat ship, boat (dpt), sail, go downstream
𓊜 P1A U+1329C boat upside down
𓊝 P2 U+1329D ship under sail sail (go upstream)
𓊞 P3 U+1329E sacred barque sacred barque (wiA)
𓊟 P3A U+1329F sacred barque without steering oar
𓊠 P4 U+132A0 boat with net Abbreviation for fisherman (wHa)
𓊡 P5 U+132A1 sail sail (tjAwt) (achtAw), sailor (nfw), wind, north wind (machyt)
𓊢 P6 U+132A2 mast
Stand (aHa) aHa Triliteral 'h' , "to erect"
𓊣 P7 U+132A3 combination of maste and forearm aHaw Combination of P6 and D36
𓊤 P8 U+132A4 oar Oar (wsrw) 1. Determinative for usr-(wsr), "oar";
2. Tril. phonogram, (kh)ru-(ḫrw)
𓊥 P9 U+132A5 combination of oar and horned viper says (Xryfy) Combination of P8 and I9
𓊦 P10 U+132A6 rudder Steering oar (hmw) Determinative, hmu-(ḥmw), for "rudder" and related words
𓊧 P11 U+132A7 mooring
mooring post (minit) 1. Determinative in mnit, the "mooring post", or related words.
𓊨 Q1 U+132A8 seat
seat (st), place st, achtm Ideogram for st, seat, throne, place; and phonogram st; see is-t, for major use of Place of XXXX, etc.
𓊩 Q2 U+132A9 carrying
seat (st) *ws in Osiris (wsjr) Ideogram for ꜣsir, the God Osiris
𓊪 Q3 U+132AA stool support (p), stool, stool made out of reed

(originally the stool's Mat)

A common usage is for the name of god Ptah-(p,t,h)
𓊫 Q4 U+132AB headrest urs A. Determinative for urs-(wrs), the "headrest";
B. headrest is also Egyptian language, uars-t,
X1 Z1
(one spelling)
(equals Coptic language, "ouras").
C. See also: WikiCommons: Egyptian headrests
𓊬 Q5 U+132AC chest box (hn), box
𓊭 Q6 U+132AD sarcophagus coffin (qrsw), bury (qrs) Ideogram or det. for qrsw, sarcophagus
𓊮 Q7 U+132AE brazier 1.-Fire-Flame
1. lamp
2. (see Fire-Flame)-(in progress)
3. "Brazier"
4. Egyptian language, (kh)ꜣbs, (for lamp, etc.-tied to (kh)ꜣbs, for "star", "luminary"; for Flame: (kh)t, sḏt, & nsr; for Heat: rkḥ & tꜣ.
𓊯 R1 U+132AF high table with offerings Offering table (ḫȝwt) ḫȝwt
𓊰 R2 U+132B0 table with slices of bread Offering table (ḫȝwt) ḫȝwt
𓊱 R2A U+132B1 high table with offerings
𓊲 R3 U+132B2 low table with offerings Offering table (ḫȝwt) ḫȝwt
𓊳 R3A U+132B3 low table altar; contentment ḥtp
𓊴 R3B U+132B4 low table with offerings (simplified)
𓊵 R4 U+132B5 loaf on mat ḥtp "altar, offering, boon which the king grants, be pleased, be happy, be gracious, pardon, be at peace, be peaceful, become calm" (Faulkner 1991:179)
𓊶 R5 U+132B6 narrow censer
𓊷 R6 U+132B7 broad censer
𓊸 R7 U+132B8 bowl with smoke
𓊹 R8 U+132B9 Cloth on pole ntjr logogram of god; Phonogram ntjr.
𓊺 R9 U+132BA combination of cloth on pole and bag
𓊻 R10 U+132BB combination of cloth on pole, butcher's block and slope of hill
𓊼 R10A U+132BC combination of cloth on pole and butcher's block
𓊽 R11 U+132BD reed column ḏd
𓊾 R12 U+132BE standard
𓊿 R13 U+132BF falcon and feather on standard
𓋀 R14 U+132C0 Emblem
of the West
Emblem of the West
Ideogram for imnt, west, (and similar); also for unmy, "right".
𓋁 R15 U+132C1 spear emblem
𓋂 R16 U+132C2 sceptre with feathers and string
𓋃 R16A U+132C3 sceptre with feathers
𓋄 R17 U+132C4 wig on pole
𓋅 R18 U+132C5 combination of wig on pole and irrigation canal system
𓋆 R19 U+132C6 scepter with feather
𓋇 R20 U+132C7 flower with horns Symbol representing the goddess Seshat
𓋈 R21 U+132C8 flower with horns
𓋉 R22 U+132C9 two narrow belemnites
𓋊 R23 U+132CA two broad belemnites
𓋋 R24 U+132CB two bows tied horizontally nt 1. Ideogram or det. for name of Goddess Neith;
2. Egyp. bil. nt.
𓋌 R25 U+132CC two bows tied vertically
𓋍 R26 U+132CD combination of land, lung and windpipe, lily, and papyrus
𓋎 R27 U+132CE two arrows crossed over a shield
𓋏 R28 U+132CF Bat
𓋐 R29 U+132D0 niche with serpent
𓋑 S1 U+132D1 white crown ḥḏ see Hedjet; (see also Red crown & Pschent))
𓋒 S2 U+132D2 combination of white crown and basket
𓋓 S2A U+132D3 combination of white crown and village
𓋔 S3 U+132D4 red crown n
see Deshret; Red crown (hieroglyph)-(uniliteral n-(vertical)); (see also White crown)
𓋕 S4 U+132D5 combination of red crown and basket
𓋖 S5 U+132D6 Pschent Crown -- for the Pharaoh, King of the Two Lands, (i.e. Upper and Lower Egypt)
𓋗 S6 U+132D7 combination of Pschent Crown and basket
𓋘 S6A U+132D8 combination of red crown and village
𓋙 S7 U+132D9 blue crown (kh)prš
𓋚 S8 U+132DA Atef
Ideo. or det. for the crown ꜣtf-(atef)
𓋛 S9 U+132DB shuti
(sh)uty-šuty two feathers, shuti two-feather adornment
𓋜 S10 U+132DC headband
𓋝 S11 U+132DD broad collar
𓋞 S12 U+132DE collar of beads nb
bil. nb; Horus of Gold name in Pharaonic titulary
𓋟 S13 U+132DF combination of collar of beads and foot
𓋠 S14 U+132E0 combination of collar of beads and mace with round head
𓋡 S14A U+132E1 combination of collar of beads and sceptre ḏ'm
see gold (hieroglyph)
𓋢 S14B U+132E2 combination of collar of beads and sceptre
𓋣 S15 U+132E3 pectoral four props, the Four Pillars of Heaven; also as, s(kh)nut, four pillars of the sky; (sa)(kh)niu, additionally, 4 legs of a chair; s(kh)nut, 4 legs of a vessel & s(kh)nut IV, the 4 Pillars that Support the Sky
𓋤 S16 U+132E4 pectoral
𓋥 S17 U+132E5 pectoral
𓋦 S17A U+132E6 girdle
𓋧 S18 U+132E7 "menat
(mnit) 1. "Menat and counterpoise"; 2. Ideogram or det. in mnit, the necklace of Menat pearls
𓋨 S19 U+132E8 seal
with necklace
-- seal
with necklace
𓋩 S20 U+132E9 necklace with seal many
see under:
ḏb-to seal
1. (confer cylinder seal); 2. Ideogram or det. in (kh)tm-(ẖtm), sḏꜣt, ḏb't, all words for "seal", or equivalent words
Seal-rings, (Impression seals, or Seals of Office)
𓋪 S21 U+132EA ring
𓋫 S22 U+132EB shoulder-knot
𓋬 S23 U+132EC two whips
with shen ring
or dnd-dnḏ
Ideogram and det. in dmḏ-(dmḏ), for "to unite"
𓋭 S24 U+132ED girdle knot tjs
1. knot; to tie in a knot, fetter;
2. Bil. (tsh)s, t_s
𓋮 S25 U+132EE garment with ties
𓋯 S26 U+132EF apron
𓋰 S26A U+132F0 apron
𓋱 S26B U+132F1 apron
𓋲 S27 U+132F2 cloth with two strands
𓋳 S28 U+132F3 cloth with fringe on top and folded cloth
𓋴 S29 U+132F4 folded cloth spdit A. Sirius, Sothic cycle, Sothis;
B. 'Readiness', beginning of the year: planting, the Season of the Inundation, (w/ rising of the Dog Star)
𓋵 S30 U+132F5 combination of folded cloth and horned viper
𓋶 S31 U+132F6 combination of folded cloth and sickle
𓋷 S32 U+132F7 cloth with fringe on the side
𓋸 S33 U+132F8 sandal
𓋹 S34 U+132F9 life
Tril. 'n(kh);
Ideogram for "life", "live"
𓋺 S35 U+132FA sunshade
𓋻 S35A U+132FB sunshade
𓋼 S36 U+132FC sunshade
𓋽 S37 U+132FD fan
𓋾 S38 U+132FE crook ḥq 1. 'to rule', 'chief', 'ruler', ḥq;
2. Hq-scepter;
3. the pharaoh was called the Ruler of On, (Ruler of Heliopolis)
𓋿 S39 U+132FF shepherd's crook
𓌀 S40 U+13300 wꜣssceptre
see Was scepter
𓌁 S41 U+13301 sceptre
𓌂 S42 U+13302 Sekhem
sḫm Sekhem scepter; "power" is s(kh)m, (sḫm)
𓌃 S43 U+13303 walking stick
𓌄 S44 U+13304 walking stick with flagellum
𓌅 S45 U+13305 flagellum
𓌆 S46 U+13306 covering for head and neck
𓌇 T1 U+13307 mace with flat head
𓌈 T2 U+13308 mace with round head
𓌉 T3 U+13309 mace with round head ḥḏ Ideogram, and phonogram for mace, ḥḏ
𓌊 T3A U+1330A combination of mace with round head and two hills
𓌋 T4 U+1330B mace with strap
𓌌 T5 U+1330C combination of mace with round head and cobra
𓌍 T6 U+1330D combination of mace with round head and two cobras
𓌎 T7 U+1330E axe
𓌏 T7A U+1330F axe
𓌐 T8 U+13310 dagger tp "top", or "first";
"first", "foremost";
Ideogram in tp, tpy; det. in mtpnt
𓌑 T8A U+13311 dagger
𓌒 T9 U+13312 bow pṯ
to stretch, to extend
𓌓 T9A U+13313 bow
𓌔 T10 U+13314 composite bow
𓌕 T11 U+13315 arrow
𓌖 T11A U+13316 two crossed arrows
𓌗 T12 U+13317 bowstring ruḏ
1. Tril. rwḏ; Ideo. for "bowstring";
2. items that are "hard, durable, strong, rooted," thus "growth, growing";
3. (see Pharaoh Rudamun)
𓌘 T13 U+13318 joined pieces of wood rs phonogram, rs
𓌙 T14 U+13319 throw stick vertically
𓌚 T15 U+1331A throw stick slanted
𓌛 T16 U+1331B scimitar
𓌜 T16A U+1331C scimitar
𓌝 T17 U+1331D chariot urrt Ideogram or det. for chariot
𓌞 T18 U+1331E crook with package attached (sh)ms follower sign
𓌟 T19 U+1331F harpoon head gn-t "memorial, record, archive, memorandum"; in plural: "annals"
𓌠 T20 U+13320 harpoon head
𓌡 T21 U+13321 harpoon u'
1. "single" items; "1", 'each', etc.; 2. Bil. w'
𓌢 T22 U+13322 arrowhead sn Bil. sn; Ideo. for "arrow"
used for:
brother, husband
sister, wife
touch, grasp
2, "second", 'the same'-(twin), two, both, etc.
𓌣 T23 U+13323 arrowhead
𓌤 T24 U+13324 fishingnet i'ḥ see moon, (also i'h);
A. plough, break ground;
B. field laborer, peasant;
C. field;
D. det. in name of a god "I'h-ur"-(I'h-Great)
𓌥 T25 U+13325 float ḏb
to supply, furnish with, equip, provide, & to decorate...(thus the "life preserver")
see also: seal, (to seal, ḏb'i-t)
𓌦 T26 U+13326 birdtrap
𓌧 T27 U+13327 trap s(kh)t
1. trap, bird-trap, (the device); 2. Ideogram or det. in s(kh)t-(sḫt), Egyptian "trap" and related words
𓌨 T28 U+13328 butcher's block khr
1. Bil. (kh)r;
2. Ideas of items below, (butchered, segmented, then 'owned'); and major use of 'below', or 'under', as a prepositional use
𓌩 T29 U+13329 butcher's block with knife
𓌪 T30 U+1332A knife (sh)'
𓌫 T31 U+1332B knife-sharpener
𓌬 T32 U+1332C combination of knife and legs
𓌭 T32A U+1332D combination of knife and folded cloth
𓌮 T33 U+1332E knife-sharpener of butcher
𓌯 T33A U+1332F combination of knife-sharpener and folded cloth
𓌰 T34 U+13330 butcher's knife
𓌱 T35 U+13331 butcher's knife
𓌲 T36 U+13332 shield
𓌳 U1 U+13333 sickle
𓌴 U2 U+13334 sickle
𓌵 U3 U+13335
𓌶 U4 U+13336
𓌷 U5 U+13337
𓌸 U6 U+13338
𓌹 U6A U+13339
𓌺 U6B U+1333A
𓌻 U7 U+1333B hoe mr 1. bil. mr, for "beloved";
2. used in Pharaoh, individuals, other names, etc.: (Pharaoh XX, Beloved of God/Goddess YY)
𓌼 U8 U+1333C
𓌽 U9 U+1333D
𓌾 U10 U+1333E grain measure (with plural, for grain particles) dbḥ
𓌿 U11 U+1333F
𓍀 U12 U+13340
𓍁 U13 U+13341
𓍂 U14 U+13342
𓍃 U15 U+13343 sled
tm Bil. tm
𓍄 U16 U+13344
𓍅 U17 U+13345 Pick, opening earth grg
to have, hold, possess; (used in building new town-locations)
𓍆 U18 U+13346
𓍇 U19 U+13347
𓍈 U20 U+13348
𓍉 U21 U+13349 adze-
stp triliteral, stp, for "chosen";
often used in Pharaonic cartouche names as: "Chosen of God XXXX", (example: Beloved of Maat, Chosen of Maat)
𓍊 U22 U+1334A clapper-(of-bell)
forked-staff, etc.
mn(kh)-(mnḫ) 1. Determinative for mn(kh)-(mnḫ), for "cut", "give shape to";
2. Ideogram in mn(kh)-(mnḫ), for "to be excellent";
3. The grandfather of Ptolemy V of the Rosetta Stone is Ptolemy III Euergetes-(the Canopus Stone), the "Well-doer Gods"-(pharaohs).[6] Their name is a composition block of two 'God' hieroglyphs-(husband & wife), (no. R8),
, with a chisel at the base of each,
𓍋 U23 U+1334B chisel ꜣb
(See: Narmer Palette)
bil., ꜣb, mr; (see also for mr, Canal)
𓍌 U23A U+1334C
𓍍 U24 U+1334D hand
ḥmt 1. Ideogram in hmt-(ḥmt), the name for the 'hand drill tool'; also hmt for words of "art", "artisan", etc.
2. Ideo. or det. for uba, (wbꜣ), to 'rise', to 'open'; see: Rise of a Star: ubn:
𓍎 U25 U+1334E
𓍏 U26 U+1334F
𓍐 U27 U+13350
𓍑 U28 U+13351 fire-drill ḏa
1. bil. ḏꜣ; Ideogram for "forest"
Emphatically used with words as ḏaḏa constructs;
2. (see AUS-(article), and "Scale-2"-(on list)-uḏ')
𓍒 U29 U+13352
𓍓 U29A U+13353
𓍔 U30 U+13354 kiln tꜣ Bil. tꜣ; Ideogram for "potter's kiln";
(for tꜣ, see also Land, tꜣ)
𓍕 U31 U+13355
𓍖 U32 U+13356
𓍗 U32A U+13357
𓍘 U33 U+13358 'pestle'-(curved top) ti Bil. ti
𓍙 U34 U+13359
𓍚 U35 U+1335A
𓍛 U36 U+1335B fuller's-club ḥm
1. Egyptian biliteral sign ḥm, for a fuller's club;
2. Ideogram for ḥmw, 'washer', and ḥm, slave, servant; phonogram ḥm.
𓍜 U37 U+1335C
𓍝 U38 U+1335D scale m(kh)ꜣt Ideogram and det. for m(kh)ꜣt-(mḫat), "scale": see Stand (for Scales)
𓍞 U39 U+1335E
𓍟 U40 U+1335F a support-(to lift) utjs
1. to lift up, support, etc.
2. see also: utjs
𓍠 U41 U+13360 plummet
𓍡 U42 U+13361 pitchfork
𓍢 V1 U+13362 "string, rope", Egyptian numeral 100
𓍣 V1A U+13363 Egyptian numeral 200
𓍤 V1B U+13364 Egyptian numeral 300
𓍥 V1C U+13365 Egyptian numeral 400
𓍦 V1D U+13366 Egyptian numeral 500
𓍧 V1E U+13367 Egyptian numeral 600
𓍨 V1F U+13368 Egyptian numeral 700
𓍩 V1G U+13369 Egyptian numeral 800
𓍪 V1H U+1336A Egyptian numeral 900
𓍫 V1I U+1336B Egyptian numeral 500
𓍬 V2 U+1336C
𓍭 V2A U+1336D
𓍮 V3 U+1336E
𓍯 V4 U+1336F lasso (ua)
lasso, for "cord", (possibly earlier, a word related to "lasso")
𓍰 V5 U+13370
𓍱 V6 U+13371 rope-(shape) (sh)s
Egyptian biliteral sign šs
𓍲 V7 U+13372 rope-(shape) (sh)n
Egyptian biliteral sign šn
𓍳 V7A U+13373
𓍴 V7B U+13374
𓍵 V8 U+13375
𓍶 V9 U+13376 shen
Determinative in (sh)nw-(šnu), the cartouche
𓍷 V10 U+13377 cartouche
special uses, (often with inserted name)
šn-(shen), "circle", "encircle", or a 'ring'; later timeperiod usage for "name", rn
𓍸 V11 U+13378 cartouche-(divided) tn
(tny, tnu
ideas of to divide, to exclude, words related to Egyptian language tn, etc.
𓍹 V11A U+13379
𓍺 V11B U+1337A
𓍻 V11C U+1337B
𓍼 V12 U+1337C
𓍽 V12A U+1337D
𓍾 V12B U+1337E
𓍿 V13 U+1337F
𓎀 V14 U+13380
𓎁 V15 U+13381 Tethering rope w/ walking legs tjt
to take possession of, seize, carry off, conquer, acquire
𓎂 V16 U+13382 cattle
sꜣ bil. sꜣ; equivalent of Gardiner no. V17, also sꜣ,

(see also: tethering rope)
𓎃 V17 U+13383 lifesaver sꜣ
bil. sꜣ; equivalent of Gardiner no. V16, also sꜣ,

(see also: tethering rope)
𓎄 V18 U+13384
𓎅 V19 U+13385
𓎆 V20 U+13386 "cattle hobble" mḏu
(also md)
Egyptian numeral 10
𓎇 V20A U+13387 Egyptian numeral 20
𓎈 V20B U+13388 Egyptian numeral 30
𓎉 V20C U+13389 Egyptian numeral 40
𓎊 V20D U+1338A Egyptian numeral 50
𓎋 V20E U+1338B Egyptian numeral 60
𓎌 V20F U+1338C Egyptian numeral 70
𓎍 V20G U+1338D Egyptian numeral 80
𓎎 V20H U+1338E Egyptian numeral 90
𓎏 V20I U+1338F Egyptian numeral 20
𓎐 V20J U+13390 Egyptian numeral 30
𓎑 V20K U+13391 Egyptian numeral 40
𓎒 V20L U+13392 Egyptian numeral 50
𓎓 V21 U+13393 Fetter + Cobra mḏ, mḏut deep place, deep, pit, cavern-extending, subterranean shrine, etc.
𓎔 V22 U+13394 whip mḥ Bil. mh, (mḥ); (See: similar shaped hieroglyph: water-skin)
𓎕 V23 U+13395
𓎖 V23A U+13396
𓎗 V24 U+13397
𓎘 V25 U+13398 "command staff" uḏ
to give an order, to command, to decree; (bil.
𓎙 V26 U+13399
𓎚 V27 U+1339A
𓎛 V28 U+1339B 'eternity'
ḥḥ eternity, or "a long time period"; (variations of timeperiods, with tweaks of the seated man holding renpet-constructs)
𓎜 V28A U+1339C
𓎝 V29 U+1339D (fiber)
(straw broom)
sq, (or)

1. Biliteral sq; "to clean", "dust";
2. Triliteral uah, (wꜣḥ)
𓎞 V29A U+1339E
𓎟 V30 U+1339F basket
Egyptian for "everything", every; major use: "Lord", (or feminine, Lady);
Bil. nb
Ideogram for basket: master, lord
𓎠 V30A U+133A0
𓎡 V31 U+133A1 basket-
Unil. k
𓎢 V31A U+133A2
𓎣 V32 U+133A3
𓎤 V33 U+133A4
𓎥 V33A U+133A5
𓎦 V34 U+133A6
𓎧 V35 U+133A7
𓎨 V36 U+133A8 doubled container
many spellings
ḥnty period of 120 years; in translation: "for..'henti years'"; from,
ḥn-t, border, boundary, end, limit, frontier, etc.
𓎩 V37 U+133A9
𓎪 V37A U+133AA
𓎫 V38 U+133AB
𓎬 V39 U+133AC ?stylized ankh
(for Isis)(?)
Tyet, Knot of Isis, Girdle of Isis
𓎭 V40 U+133AD
𓎮 V40A U+133AE
𓎯 W1 U+133AF Oil jar Ointment (mrḥt), oil
𓎰 W2 U+133B0 Oil-jar without ties Bas-container (bAs) bAs
𓎱 W3 U+133B1 alabaster
Alabaster (schs), festival (achb)
(Equivalent to Gardiner W4, Jubilee Pavilion (hieroglyph))
det. in , 'alabaster', or "precious stone"; det. in hb

abbreviation for ḥbt in "ritual book" ḥrj-ḥbt

𓎲 W3A U+133B2 alabaster
𓎳 W4 U+133B3 festival chamber, (the tail is also vertical 'Great': 'ꜣ) festival (ḥb) Sṯ Sed festival
𓎴 W5 U+133B4 abbreviation for Lector Priest
𓎵 W6 U+133B5 Metal vessel boiler (wḥAt)
𓎶 W7 U+133B6 Granite Bowl red granite (mAtj) mAtj
𓎷 W8 U+133B7 Granite Bowl red granite (mAtj)
𓎸 W9 U+133B8 Stone jug Nechnem-oil (nḥnm) ḥnm
𓎹 W9A U+133B9
𓎺 W10 U+133BA cup wsḫ, sẖw Determinative for goblet (jab) A. Determinative for the "vessel", Egyptian language, i'b-(no. 5 of 6); det. for i'b (1 & 2), 1: to approach, to come towards, to meet; 2: "to present a gift", to make an offering, 'an offering';
B. i', i'y, bathing; i'u, food, morning meal; i'b-(no. 3 of 6), uses Gardiner no. F16,
as det. for "to comb"; the other use of 'to comb', is for 'to card wool' and also uses the Horn hieroglyph, but is the equivalent word: b'-(no. 2, of 3); (no. 1 is a vessel, bowl, but made of "copper", etc.)
𓎻 W10A U+133BB Pot bA (rarely)
𓎼 W11 U+133BC Jar stand seat (nst) g
𓎽 W12 U+133BD Jar stand seat (nst) g
𓎾 W13 U+133BE pot Heset-pitcher, Senbet-pitcher (snbt) or similar containers
𓎿 W14 U+133BF water jar side area (jmw), side (gs) m, m, gs Bil. ḥs
𓏀 W14A U+133C0 Water jar with water
𓏁 W15 U+133C1 Water jar with rack clean (qbḥ) (only Ideogram)
𓏂 W16 U+133C2 Water jar with rack Libation (qbḥ), (qbb)
𓏃 W17 U+133C3 Water jar with rack water pitchers in the stand (ḫntw), first ḫnt (j) ḫnt
𓏄 W17A U+133C4
𓏅 W18 U+133C5 Water jar with rack water pitchers in the stand (ḫntw), first ḫnt (j) ḫnt
𓏆 W18A U+133C6
𓏇 W19 U+133C7 Milk jug with handle mi 1. like, as, according to, inasmuch as, since, as well as, together with; all adverbial forms, some as a segue;
2. early forms use other hieroglyphs;
3. Egyptian: mity and mitt relate to "image" or "likeness": likeness, copy, resemblance, statue, image, similitude, the like etc.
𓏈 W20 U+133C8 Milk jug with cover milk (jrtjt), milk container and contents
𓏉 W21 U+133C9 Wine jars Wine (jrp) Determinative in irp, "wine"
𓏊 W22 U+133CA Beer jug beer (achnqt), containers and its contents, tribute (jnw), victim, attendant (wdpw)
𓏋 W23 U+133CB Beer jug ontainer (qracht), containers and their contents
𓏌 W24 U+133CC Pot nw, jn * (accompanies the signs Aa-27 and Aa-28) get (jnj) nu
Phoneme for nw; det. for qd, construct, mold; (see: ḥnk, Arm-with-nu-pot)
𓏍 W24A U+133CD Three pots
𓏎 W25 U+133CE Pot with legs fetch
𓏏 X1 U+133CF loaf of bread t Uniliteral for "t"
𓏐 X2 U+133D0
𓏑 X3 U+133D1
𓏒 X4 U+133D2
𓏓 X4A U+133D3
𓏔 X4B U+133D4
𓏕 X5 U+133D5
𓏖 X6 U+133D6 loaf-with-decoration pꜣt
(phoneme pꜣ)
1. Determinative for the 'decorated bread loaf', pꜣt; phoneme for pꜣ; meanings of: stuff, matter, substance; for 'bread': dough, cake, bread, offering, food, product;
2. for the "primordial god(s)": "Pauti",
(or) X6
X1 Z4

(many spelling versions)
𓏗 X6A U+133D7
𓏘 X7 U+133D8
𓏙 X8 U+133D9 cone-
di Ideogram for di, rdi, give, given, to give; (an equivalent to arm offering conical "loaf"), Gardiner no. D37,

In iconography and reliefs, used for pharaonic statements: "Given, Life, Power...Forever"-(the vertical form of 'to give')
𓏚 X8A U+133DA
𓏛 Y1 U+133DB papyrus
papyrus scroll, book (mdjAt) mḏ3-t
terms connected with writing, or 'abstract' concepts
𓏜 Y1A U+133DC
𓏝 Y2 U+133DD papyrus scroll, book (mdjAt) Old Kingdom variation of Y1.
𓏞 Y3 U+133DE Scribe's outfit Scribe's outfit (mnhd) abbreviation for write, (ssch) writing, etc. naa, snaa
𓏟 Y4 U+133DF Scribe's outfit Scribe's outfit (mnhd) abbreviation for write, (ssch) writing, etc. naa, snaa Rarer alternative of Y3
𓏠 Y5 U+133E0 Senet board mn Extensive dictionary entries beginning at "Mn"-(or men), since the definitions center around permanence, enduring, etc. A common Pharaonic epithet was: Mn-Kheper-Ra, but many names using "mn" as a name component.
𓏡 Y6 U+133E1 game piece game figure (jbA) abbreviation for dancer (jbA) jbA 1. Ideogram or det. in ib3, "pawn", draughtsman; phoneme for ib3; 2. Det. for ib3u, ib3, dance [of the gods]; also dancer, dancing man, etc.
𓏢 Y7 U+133E2 harp Harp bint
[bin-t, bn-t]
Determinative in bint, "harp"; (see article Medamud for relief usage)
𓏣 Y8 U+133E3 Sistrum Sistrum (sschscht) sš, sššt
(also s(kh)m)
A. Ideo. for "sistrum", sššt, (or s(kh)m(=sistrum)); det. in sššt;
B. s(kh)m is Egyptian for 'power', (confer with Sekhem scepter-(list skhm) and Medamud-(article))
𓏤 Z1 U+133E4 Single stroke Singularity,

Egyptian numeral 1

indicates that the prior sign is an Ideogram as if it no feminine ending, can stand as an abundance stroke at empty places.
𓏥 Z2 U+133E5 Plural stroke (horizontal) plural, majority, collective concept (e.g. meat, jwf)
𓏦 Z2A U+133E6 Can be used as a replacement for signs perceived to be dangerous to be actually written
𓏧 Z2B U+133E7
𓏨 Z2C U+133E8
𓏩 Z2D U+133E9
𓏪 Z3 U+133EA plural strokes (vertical) Can be used as a replacement for signs perceived to be dangerous to be actually written
𓏫 Z3A U+133EB
𓏬 Z3B U+133EC
𓏭 Z4 U+133ED Dual stroke Egyptian numeral 2,

plural, majority, collective concept (e.g. meat, jwf),


for j (y) (only if ending sounds like a dual ending) Can be used as a replacement for signs perceived to be dangerous to be actually written
𓏮 Z4A U+133EE Egyptian numeral 2
𓏯 Z5 U+133EF Diagonal stroke (from hieratic) Can be used as a replacement for signs perceived to be dangerous to be actually written)
𓏰 Z5A U+133F0
𓏱 Z6 U+133F1 Substitute for various human figures for death, die (mwt)
𓏲 Z7 U+133F2 coil
(hieratic equivalent)
w or (u) unil., equivalent of unil. w, the quail chick,
; Both chick and coil are used for plural, the w, (or u);
(see also: Plural)
𓏳 Z8 U+133F3 Oval round (šnw)
𓏴 Z9 U+133F4 Crossed diagonal sticks Destroy (achdjj), break, divide (wpj), over load (djAj), cross, meet swA, sdj, ichbs, šbn, wp, wr.
𓏵 Z10 U+133F5 Crossed diagonal sticks Destroy (achdjj), break, divide (wpj), over load (djAj), cross, meet swA, sdj, ichbs, šbn, wp, wr. Determinative for "break, divide" (wpj), "over load" (ḏAj), "cross, meet".
𓏶 Z11 U+133F6 Two planks crossed and joined imi
𓏷 Z12 U+133F7
𓏸 Z13 U+133F8
𓏹 Z14 U+133F9
𓏺 Z15 U+133FA Egyptian numeral 1
𓏻 Z15A U+133FB Egyptian numeral 2
𓏼 Z15B U+133FC Egyptian numeral 3
𓏽 Z15C U+133FD Egyptian numeral 4
𓏾 Z15D U+133FE Egyptian numeral 5
𓏿 Z15E U+133FF Egyptian numeral 6
𓐀 Z15F U+13400 Egyptian numeral 7
𓐁 Z15G U+13401 Egyptian numeral 8
𓐂 Z15H U+13402 Egyptian numeral 9
𓐃 Z15I U+13403 Egyptian numeral 5
𓐄 Z16 U+13404 numeral 1 in dates
𓐅 Z16A U+13405 numeral 2 in dates
𓐆 Z16B U+13406 numeral 3 in dates
𓐇 Z16C U+13407 numeral 4 in dates
𓐈 Z16D U+13408 numeral 5 in dates
𓐉 Z16E U+13409 numeral 6 in dates
𓐊 Z16F U+1340A numeral 7 in dates
𓐋 Z16G U+1340B numeral 8 in dates
𓐌 Z16H U+1340C numeral 9 in dates
𓐍 Aa1 U+1340D Placenta or sieve Kh
𓐎 Aa2 U+1340E Pustule Bodily growths or conditions, disease
𓐏 Aa3 U+1340F Pustule with liquid issuing from it Medical or anatomical condition, specifically soft matter or liquid Rare alternative for AA2
𓐐 Aa4 U+13410 bA (rarely) See W10
𓐑 Aa5 U+13411 Part of steering gear of a ship Hasten (hip), Hepet-device (achpt) achp (rarely)
𓐒 Aa6 U+13412 mat (TmA) tmA, tjmA.
𓐓 Aa7 U+13413 A Smiting-Blade spr Abbreviation for "smite" (spr)
𓐔 Aa7A U+13414
𓐕 Aa7B U+13415
𓐖 Aa8 U+13416 Irrigation tunnels Estate (djAtt) qn, ḏAt, ḏAḏAt
𓐗 Aa9 U+13417 rich (Hwd)
𓐘 Aa10 U+13418 drf
𓐙 Aa11 U+13419 Raised platform (tjntt), platform abbreviation for mAa in (mAa-ichrw) mAa and mAa in mAa-ichrw
𓐚 Aa12 U+1341A Raised platform (tjntt), platform abbreviation for mAa in (mAa-ichrw) mAa
𓐛 Aa13 U+1341B side area (jmw), side (gs) m, m, gs
𓐜 Aa14 U+1341C side area (jmw), side (gs) m, m, gs
𓐝 Aa15 U+1341D jm, m, gs
𓐞 Aa16 U+1341E side (gs) gs
𓐟 Aa17 U+1341F back (sA) sA
𓐠 Aa18 U+13420 back (sA) sA
𓐡 Aa19 U+13421 Hr
𓐢 Aa20 U+13422 apr
𓐣 Aa21 U+13423 divide (wdja) abbreviation for Seth
𓐤 Aa22 U+13424 divide (wdja) abbreviation for Seth
𓐥 Aa23 U+13425 Often instead of U35
𓐦 Aa24 U+13426 Often instead of U35
𓐧 Aa25 U+13427 garment priest (smA)
𓐨 Aa26 U+13428 sbj
𓐩 Aa27 U+13429 ndj
𓐪 Aa28 U+1342A qd
𓐫 Aa29 U+1342B
𓐬 Aa30 U+1342C Heker-frieze
𓐭 Aa31 U+1342D
𓐮 Aa32 U+1342E

See also[edit]

Articles on individual hieroglyphs


  1. ^ Michael Everson, Preliminary proposal to encode Möller's Egyptian Hieroglyphs in the SMP of the UCS, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N4741 L2/16-250 (2016).
  2. ^ "Time Trips".
  3. ^ Michael Everson, Preliminary proposal to encode Möller’s Egyptian Hieroglyphs in the SMP of the UCS, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N4741 L2/16-250 (2016).[verification needed]
  4. ^ Parpola, 1997l. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Parpola, Simo, Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, c 1997, Tablet I thru Tablet XII, Index of Names, Sign List, and Glossary-(pp. 119–145), pp. 165.
  5. ^ Budge, 1989, (1929), The Rosetta Stone, p. 288-289.
  6. ^ Budge, 1989, (1929). The Rosetta Stone, p. 126.
  • Budge, Sir E.A.Wallis, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, in Two Volumes, Sir E.A.Wallis Budge, (Dover Publications, Inc. New York), c 1920, Dover Edition, c 1978. (Large categorized listings of Hieroglyphs, Vol 1, pp. xcvii–cxlvii (97–147) (25 categories, 1000+ hieroglyphs), 50 pgs.)
  • Faulkner, William (1991). Middle Egyptian. Griffith. ISBN 0-900416-32-7.:
  • A.H. Gardiner, Catalogue of the Egyptian hieroglyphic printing type, from matrices owned and controlled by Dr. Alan (1928).
  • A.H. Gardiner, "Additions to the new hieroglyphic fount (1928)", The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 15 (1929), p. 95.
  • A.H. Gardiner, "Additions to the new hieroglyphic fount (1931)", The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 17 (1931), pp. 245–247.
  • A.H. Gardiner, Supplement to the catalogue of the Egyptian hieroglyphic printing type, showing acquisitions to December 1953 (1953).
  • A.H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3rd Ed., pub. Griffith Institute, Oxford, 1957 (1st edition 1927), pp. 438–548 (pdf).
  • Möller, Georg. 1909. Hieratische Paläographie: die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der Fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. Erster Band: Bis zum Beginn der achtzehnten Dynastie
  • Möller, Georg. 1927. Hieratische Paläographie: die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der Fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. Zweiter Band: Von der Zeit Thutmosis' III bis zum Ende der einundzwanzigsten Dynastie,
  • Möller, Georg. 1936. Hieratische Paläographie: die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der Fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. Dritter Band: Von der zweiundzwanzigsten Dynastie bis zum dritten Jahrhundert nach Chr.
  • Möller, Georg. 1936. Hieratische Paläographie: die aegyptische Buchschrift in ihrer Entwicklung von der Fünften Dynastie bis zur römischen Kaiserzeit. Vierter *Band: Ergänzungsheft zu Band I und II
  • Wilkinson, Richard, Reading Egyptian Art, A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture, Richard H. Wilkinson, with 450 Illustrations, (Thames & Hudson Ltd, London), c 1992.
  • Rainer Hannig: Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch. (2800 – 950 v. Chr.) Marburger Edition. 4th rev. ed. von Zabern, Mainz 2006, ISBN 3-8053-1771-9, (= Hannig-Lexica. vol. 1); (= Kulturgeschichte der Antiken Welt. vol. 64, ISSN 0937-9746),contains the Gardiner list plus an extended sign list.
  • Rainer Hannig, Petra Vomberg: Wortschatz der Pharaonen in Sachgruppen. Hannig Lexica vol. 2, 2nd ed, von Zabern, Mainz 2012, ISBN 978-3-8053-4473-9.
  • Friedrich Junge: Einführung in die Grammatik des Neuägyptischen 3rd rev. ed. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 978-3-447-05718-9, information on transcription and transliteration and peculiarities of New Kingdom orthographies.
  • Christian Leitz: Die Tempelinschriften der griechisch-römischen Zeit. 3rd rev ed. Münster 2009, ISBN 978-3-8258-7340-0, (= Quellentexte zur ägyptischen Religion 1), (= Einführungen und Quellentexte zur Ägyptologie 2), references older inventories of Ptolemaic era hieroglyphics.
  • Michael Everson and Bob Richmond, Towards a Proposal to encode Egyptian Hieroglyphs in Unicode (2006)

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